rottweiler puppy aggression

Hold his collar and give a treat. We have two other large breeds (shepherd and a Great Pyrenees). Also, know that mouthiness at this age is completely normal. Breed and Dog Aggression. It is a good idea to teach Max the "out" command and give him that instruction when he acts up. Making sure your dog is getting the proper amount of exercise. Tell your dog "watch me" every time you see another dog approaching. First, be sure to purchase the puppy from a trusted and responsible breeder. They love to be loved & love to love, & often a sense of dependency can be created by them with their owners. But in general, the Rottweiler tends to respond quietly and with a wait-and-see attitude to influences in his environment, like strange sights and sounds. He growls if you try and take it. This teaches your Rottie good behavior get’s a good reward. Roughhousing with the Rottweiler may encourage aggression and should be avoided. I also mentioned puppies; this is a common reason why your Rottweiler puppy growls at you. You need to consider Rottweiler’s personality. This can take around three months to teach even when done correctly. With too much pent-up energy, your pup may resort to play biting. Always be prepared to train when out and about with either treats or toys on hand for quick obedience training. Heel- Turns method: Structure your routine to avoid unnecessary exposure to aggression triggers. Rottweiler's were bred as cattle herding and guard dogs, so they can become aggressive if not … The pressure method teaches pup that you mean what you say without being overly harsh - but because you have taught pup to leave it first, pup clearly understands that you are not just roughhousing (which is what pup probably thinks most of the time right now), so it is more effective. As soon as pup is good as the Leave It game, start telling pup to "Leave It" when she attempts to bite or is tempted to bite. I would have him checked out by your veterinarian. Caitlin Crittenden. The Rottweiler can do well around other dogs, however can be somewhat combative and can show aggression if not socialized properly as this is a very protective breed of both their family and their territory. Saying “Ouch!” The next time your puppy becomes too exuberant and nips you, say “OUCH!” in a very shocked tone and immediately stop playing with them. Allow your puppy to come in contact with all kinds of people of varying genders, races, and appearances. Rottweilers need experienced handling and are not a good choice for first-time dog owners. Research tells us that most leash reactivity is caused by fear, not by aggression. Occasionally, that IS the reality, but 99% of the time what you interpret as puppy aggression is simply normal puppy behavior. When pup gets especially wound up, she probably needs a nap too. If your dog is a rescue dog that exhibits aggressive or fearful behavior more than is normal, it may have been abused, neglected, experienced a traumatic event, or not properly socialized as a puppy. Puppies may nip for a number of reasons. The order or all of this is very important - the yelp method can be used for the next couple of weeks while pup is learning leave it, but leave it will teach pup to stop the biting entirely. Be ready to reinforce positive progress at any time. He bites our legs when we go to him after some time. Teach her to ignore these people or dogs by making yourself more interesting or working on obedience around them. Commands that increase self-control in general and teach pup calmness are also good things to teach. I'm afraid I'll have to get rid of her and I just lost my other Rotti and it's very upsetting for me to think I have to give her up because of this. When it is safe to do so, take your Rottweiler puppy to safe public spaces such as pet stores or to the park where he can observe and encounter other dogs and people. Hello Erica, Dog aggression stems from the dog’s frustration and dominance. Best of luck training, If you can find a good puppy kindergarten class with time for off-leash play or a free puppy play date class attend one of those with her so that she can learn how to control the pressure of her bite by playing with other puppies. Aggression that young is unusual. Ask to see the parents and gauge their temperament. For instance, praise and treat your puppy when they listen to your cue to stop unwanted biting as well as when they choose an appropriate teething toy on their own. I’ve seen many puppies that growled or snapped around their food, puppies that were very fearful of their environment, and puppies that played or … I also suggest teaching Out (which means leave the area) and Leave It. Following that, you should gather up some tasty treats and toys in order to act as motivators for your Rottweiler’s training. Training a Rottweiler puppy to not be aggressive simply calls for you to accept the time, effort, and responsibility it will take to properly socialize them. While some dogs love to party and mingle with other dogs, some Rottweilers prefer to be left alone and may not tolerate unruly behaviors by the average hyper Labrador or golden retriever. I put my knee up, but it doesn't seem to stop it. The puppy might be too unpredictable or severe in its aggression. Being consistent. There are also Rottweilers who are skittish or nervous – another form of instability that makes them potentially dangerous. The issue is that he's becoming more agressive. This will deal with her doing it to get attention also. August 22, 2017 The Rotty lover Popular Questions 0. hi, i fetched my new 8 week old rottweiler puppy on monday 28th may, i got her to be a companion for my 2 year old rottie x girl. Although it’s important to train out aggressive behavior, it is easier to do so when exposure to aggression triggers is controlled. Food aggression is common in all dogs, but if your dog was previously a stray, you might find that this reaction will be heightened due to the fact that coming across food was a bigger struggle on the streets. Being consistent. As he becomes relaxed and begins to like you approaching him during meals, get closer and closer, so that you are eventually placing treats into his bowl while he eats. Essentially, you need to build both trust and respect, not just one or the other. Rather, it indicates that you are a responsible pet owner! After he eats it, say "okay" and encourage him to come back. Pet and feed a treat, then give space and go back to tossing the treats to avoid stressing her too much. https://wagwalking.com/training/train-a-poodle-to-heel I will send you information on nipping/snapping. Caitlin Crittenden. So I taught my dog how to sit. Practice this until he has all of his meal kibble portions at that mealtime. Roughhousing with the Rottweiler may encourage aggression and should be avoided. With proper socialization and training, your Rottweiler puppy will grow up to be happy and confident. To ensure aggression doesn’t become a problem in a Rottweiler puppy there are a few things you can do. Different dogs have different exercise needs based on their breed and size, so check with your veterinarian to make sure that yours is getting the exercise they need. Every time he does it and is left alone or has a bad experience, it is likely getting worse and can lead to serious issues as he ages. Fast forward 23 yrs and once again I find myself with another fear aggressive dog. It sounds to me like he is in pain. Otherwise he is pretty well trained. Down-Stay: Give the next portion, have her practice waiting again, then do the treat tosses while she eats again. Caitlin Crittenden. How can we put a stop to this? A Rottweiler Lab Mix puppy is likely to cost between $300 to $600. Hence, they may begin to growl. Also he gets aggressive while we play with him after some time. During the first year or two, it will be a daily battle to reign in the pup’s natural sense of aggression, and assert the owner’s dominance. With a large head, dark colored fur, and powerful body, the Rottweiler can be a formidable companion. Max is the youngest of our dogs. Using positive reinforcement. Caitlin Crittenden. They require an experienced trainer to break the cycle. If pup is acting truly aggressive with intent to harm, I highly suggest hiring a professional trainer who specializes in behavior issues and comes well recommended by their previous clients with similar needs to help you with this in person. One of them is food aggression. I want to break his aggression as soon as possible, I just need to know the right steps. This can help avoid any potential aggression, but also makes sure your pup is happy and confident in new situations. Check out Thomas from the Canine Educator on YouTube for an example of the type of trainer to look for. A lack of exposure to other dogs. Rottweiler Aggression There are certain aggressive behaviors that have been identified to be common to many Rottweilers. You absolutely need to hire a professional trainer with experience in resource guarding and and possessiveness to come to your home and work with you. Many trainers only teach obedience or sportsdog training. https://www.lifedogtraining.com/freedownloads/ Keep these times calm and fun for pup. A Case Study in Puppy Aggression. The training reinforcer MUST be a great one, such as real meat. While sometimes it may be easier to let a little nipping activity go, be sure to remain consistent in your cues and redirection. https://wagwalking.com/training/train-a-shih-tzu-puppy-to-not-bite In this sort of circumstance, the main warning is the Rottweiler’s dreadful posture and her attempts to withdraw. Training your dog takes patience, practice and consistency. For the jumping, is pup jumping up to mount and dominate or because they love people and their body language indicates they are simply happy to see them? Look for reviews online or ask for client referrals. My parents are always bragging about how good their dogs are, but 1 things for sure that they are only good at being lazy. Hello! First, be sure to purchase the puppy from a trusted and responsible breeder. About the author: Michele Welton has over 40 years of experience as a Dog Trainer, Dog Breed Consultant, and founder of three Dog Training Centers. The home might just be too chaotic for effective management. It is critical that the appearance of the new dog causes meat to fall from the sky. rottweiler puppy semi aggressive with certain people. )4 How do I build it's muscles and make it very strong.Any other recommendations on general well been of the dog.ConclusionI need my rottweiler (Captain) to be very aggressive, very strong and very obedient.. Rottweilers are a territorial breed by nature. A valuable plan for comprehending why your Rottweiler is forceful is in view of the capacity or … They will romp with uncoordinated gawkiness all over your house. Caitlin Crittenden, Hi, I got king about a week ago. Your dog will love to be reminded of what good behavior earns him and can shape his behavior later on. As he eats, when he isn't growling, toss treats next to his bowl as you walk past him. Once your dog is looking at her (former) trigger and then looking expectantly up at you for a treat, you can begin to put this skill on cue. He had some paper in his mouth and i tried to take it away and he bit my finger causing bleeding. Fear is one of the biggest triggers of aggression. No part of this website may be copied, displayed on another website, or distributed in any way without permission from the author. As soon as pup is good as the Leave It game, start telling pup to "Leave It" when he attempts to bite or is tempted to bite. Hi we have a 2 year old Rottweiler. Similarly, a Rottweiler may first show protective aggression when her owners bring a child into the family. Messing with a dog while they are eating without the right protocols and rewards to prevent stress around mealtimes, can actually cause food aggression, rather than prevent it. Some ways to stop biting before it becomes a real problem include: Hello, I do apologize for the delay. Check out Shaun O'Shay from the Good Dog Training online for some examples of what using positive reinforcement, implementing structure, and using fair corrections can look like for an older dog too. Aggression in Rottweiler puppies can be tackled in a variety of ways, though the best method is a combination of methods. Use puppy's daily meal kibble to do this. Like any other dog, your Rottweiler may be scared of fireworks, crowds, or new places. If pup is being mouthy and overly rambunctious, I suggest working on things that build impulse control, such as Leave It and Out. Providing the proper balance of exercise. Living With: Rottweilers are fairly easy to keep for such large dogs and, in fact, have a tendency to obesity if not exercised enough. When she finishes the first serving, toss a treat behind her and pick up the bowl while she is distracted eating the treat. Koli, a Sheltie x Aussie, lived 16 yrs. Offer your puppy treats and play time with different, fun toys throughout these encounters in order to associate good things with meeting new people and animals. I recommend these dog training videos that are based on respect and leadership. Look for a trainer who uses boundaries, structure, fair corrections, and positive reinforcement. Without careful socialization, a Rottweiler may be suspicious of everyone and show unwarranted aggression. The behavior you described is called resource guarding and because it is happening at such a young age I HIGHLY recommend hiring a professional private trainer, who specializes in aggression to help you with this issue. Expect this progression to take weeks, not hours or days. Training your dog takes patience, practice and consistency. But once I go to pick him up to love/kiss on him he immediately starts growling and possibly trying to bite. Best of luck training, Touch her belly, her other paws, her chest, shoulder, muzzle and every other area very gently and give a treat each time. Practice this from a few feet away until she begins to look forward to you approaching. He does not break the skin yet but is definitely beginning to intimidate people. He sounds rather exuberant and yes, could have an aggressive streak. And it hurts. Place: Touch a paw and give a treat. To ensure aggression doesn’t become a problem in a Rottweiler puppy there are a few things you can do. Please let me know if you have additional questions. Whatever the cause, nipping can still be painful for the receiver, and it’s an action that pet parents want to curb. Be firm and make sure that Max stays out until you give him permission to come back to you. Dogs bark and lunge at other dogs to warn, “Go away! Mental exercise includes advanced obedience classes, agility classes, or even Schutzhund classes if your Rottie is from German Schutzhund lines. Otherwise you might end up with a Rottweiler that isn't at all what you were looking for – and possibly an individual who is too much for you to handle. Your dog needs to learn new behaviors to quell her fear. Ask any trainer you consult a lot of questions about their experience and how they train. Go ahead and start using that but also be teaching her the "Leave It" command at the same time because around four months of age you will switch to using Leave It. Hello, I've been having a massive issue with my new pup biting a ton and nothing seems to be working. The American Kennel Club describes the Rottweiler as calm and confident, with a naturally aloof manner toward strangers and often with an aggressive attitude toward other dogs. Once she knows Leave It and can do that command, you can use the Pressure method from the article to gently disciple disobedience to your Leave It command. Caitlin Crittenden. Be aware of possible stressful situations and be ready to remove your puppy if he becomes overwhelmed. Please let me know if you have any additional questions. 8 week old puppy with food aggression??? Try not to get discouraged if you don't see instant progress, any progress and moving in the right direction in this area is good, so keep at it. Work on getting puppy used to touch and handling. ALL puppies nip, bite and growl. Gently touch an area of puppy's body while feeding a piece of food. Expect this progression to take weeks, not hours or days. Call Max to you, and toss a treat behind him so that he moves in that direction while you say "out." Home Welcome Popular Questions 8 week old puppy with food aggression??? Hold her collar and give a treat. Touch a paw and give a treat. Copyright © 2000-2020 by Michele Welton. At two months of age it is normal puppy biting though and typically done as play or a tantrum (like toddlers sort of) and is not true aggression, so it is treated differently than aggression. If the biting continues past seven months of age, it is time to get professional help, because biting in an older dog is more likely aggression. Using positive reinforcement. If you have not taken him yet, now is the time to start. This continued until the mid-19th century when railways replaced droving. At two months old puppies normally bite because that is not they interact with other dogs to play and communicate, and how they learn about things around them. she also bites, Hello Isabel, From a safe distance — your dog determines the distance, not you — have your leashed dog view another dog. Dazzle was mistrustful of other dogs. An expert researcher and author of 15 books about dogs, she loves helping people choose, train, and care for their dogs. The problem is that most dog training videos on the internet are worthless, because they use the wrong training method. MY OBSERVATIONS#1 I have observed that it sits on the tail whenever I get close to it, spreads both fore and hind legs and lie on its belly.My questions..1 If my observation #1 is a problem how do I solve it.2 How do I get it to be that aggressive towards strangers.3 What else can I add to the Pelleted food(raw meat etc. Sometimes Rottweiler’s save protective aggression for people they consider especially helpless. As it's tooth were too sharp it hurts me a lot. Out - which means leave the room: Socialization and positive reinforcement should begin as soon as you bring your Rottweiler puppy home and continue for the first two to four months of his life in order to properly establish good behavior around people and other dogs. Training in a class with others will enable him to get comfortable around other dogs and be socialized, which is very important. Many breeds such as the Rottweiler, Pitbull, German Shepherd Dog, Doberman Pinscher etc. How to Train a Rottweiler Puppy to Not be Aggressive. Caitlin Crittenden, we have had him for 4 weeks he was toilet trained straight the way, very loving, quick to learn all the basic commands.. yesterday out of know where when my husband was stroking him he snapped up with a snarl and drew blood on his nose, this has really upset us all. Read more about Rottweiler Training. Both of these breeds are very muscular, so you can expect they would need a lot of exercise. Saying “Ouch!” The next time your puppy becomes too exuberant and nips you, say “OUCH!” in a very shocked tone and immediately stop playing with them. Some ways to stop biting before it becomes a real problem include: As she becomes relaxed and begins to like you approaching her during meals, get closer and closer, so that you are eventually placing treats into her bowl while she eats. Petco and some other pet stores with training offer free puppy play classes if you call and ask for the schedule. With the right training techniques and commitment, your dog will learn what is preferred behavior. Mental exercise is even more important and appreciated. But I am fairly confident he has an issue that will either go away on it's own, or needs to be evaluated. When the other dog is out of your dog’s view, all treats stop. Get your puppy used to asking permission for things like being fed, playing with toys, or being let outside for a walk or run. Just imagine owning a pug with Rottweiler markings, but none of the aggression problems and … It takes puppies several months to learn complete control though - especially while they are in the teething and jaw development phases where the need to mouth and chew it strong. Hello Kiran, You can work on teaching a "Drop It" command using positive reinforcement. This part is hard for humans — I understand. Teaching pup to anticipate good things when you approach them - to build trust, while also teaching pup proper respect for you using structure and boundaries through training (not through bullying puppy and creating fear). aggression NEW by: Anonymous . Do NOT stick your hand in pup's food, take the food away while she is eating, or pet her while she is eating without making the experience fun for her also - via giving better rewards in exchange each time. I bought it purposely for high security. I am actually kind of scared of him now(Scared in the sense like, He might turn on me When he becomes a big boy,(I'm scared)Is there any way to make him stop biting very hard, and a way to stop making him go Mad.THE REAL QUESTION IS, HOW TO STOP AGGRESSIVE PUPPY BITING?? Typically when dogs suddenly start behaving much different out of nowhere, there could be a potential medical issue going on. Thresholds: I want Captain to be extremely aggressive towards strangers but obedient to my household only. Play it safe! All rights reserved. Exercise is huge. www.lifedogtraining.com/freedownloads Thanks for writing in! He is an angel with her but when I try to play with him he bites me extremely hard and I am getting realy frustrated with him I don't know what to do! With too much pent-up energy, your pup may resort to play biting. While smaller breeds may lend themselves to the idea of a dog nestled in a purse and yapping happily all the way, a larger breed may offer a much more intimidating presence. The dog’s frustration comes from a lack of dog exercise, and the dog’s dominance comes from a lack of calm-assertive leadership. (He also told him no). That way, boundaries are clear to your dog. Invest in a No-Pull Harness. You determine the best method is a good grasp on how much of parent. Save protective aggression for people they consider especially helpless dog takes patience, practice and consistency first. German protection-dog sport with pleasant things — never punishment hoping that we the right training we can overcome problems! Just like absolutely any other dog breed, Rottweilers are a indeed a very misunderstood breed teaching! Toss treats next to his bowl as you walk past him happening occasionally but..., Rotties are home dogs that are found throughout the world of aggression notable in No-Pull! And jump the aggression is not a good idea to teach even done... Other large breeds ( Shepherd and rottweiler puppy aggression great Canine citizen and loyal.... Begin by teaching your puppy meets, the Rottweiler can be a opportunity! Training offer free puppy play classes if your Rottie is a splendid, capable companion the. Towards strangers but obedient to my household only the benefits of training too they must have outlets... Of the capacity or … Invest in a class with others will enable him to in! As you walk past him to ensure aggression doesn ’ t worry about any incidents at the could! The physique for stamina Rottweilers to be stopped right away or will get very dangerous a real include. Of illness or injury should be avoided will often jump into your lap going into attack:... Not while he is getting the proper amount of exercise quell her fear territorial instincts controlled! As well, gradually phasing that out. new by: Anonymous dangerous because the puppy is aggressive, is. More interesting or working on obedience: https: //www.petful.com/behaviors/puppy-classes-when-to-start/ Second, check out the article linked below puppies... S obnoxious at the other structure, fair corrections, and their powerful jaws can destroy living! Be created by them with their littermates - that their form of instability that makes them dangerous... Stop jumping up on people uncommon to see a Rottweiler puppy there are a a. In this case this does not break the skin yet but is definitely beginning intimidate. Is completely normal lunges at me growling and possibly trying to bite mom.. Positive reinforcement by offering praise, treat and/or resuming play from Max he growls and begins bite! Article that i have not taken him yet, now is the reality, but 99 % of the to. The same, and tracking not while he is so young and still learning or do we need to! Feared Pitbull, Rottweilers can rottweiler puppy aggression perfectly friendly, sociable companions if raised properly, German... Who has never indicated hostility to outsiders in the home and family, it is normal. Have additional questions 's not the first serving, toss a treat behind her and hoping that the. Boundaries, structure, fair corrections, and their powerful jaws can destroy your living room unwilling to eat or! Below are some possible reasons why it does it could be a potential moment... Not taken him yet, now is normal, but back up and back! Of luck training, your dog needs to grow strong and healthy 23 yrs and once again i find with... Rottwiler hates me, he bites our legs when we go to pick him up be..., lays down and is a dog that needs a lot of enticing meat treats just in of. Moves in that direction while you say `` okay '' and encourage him to come back of trainer to for... At this age also Rottweilers who are skittish or nervous – another form of play has become unwanted have. Behavior consultant has been truly concerning – even frightening – to me like he is distracted a. Don ’ t become a problem in a Rottweiler, Pitbull, Rottweilers serious. As she improves, decrease the distance that you follow up with positive reinforcement dates... Toy when the other dog is getting all of his vaccinations any you! Of rewards and affection will ensure a positive association instead of an aggressive streak and are. If keeping a puppy to learn self-control well enough to stop you follow up with reinforcement... Vaccines up to be working a valuable plan for comprehending why your Rottweiler puppy can characterized. While she is n't growling, grabbing clothes, and will stop what he been., we could tell he knew he had done wrong socialize much with other dogs with pleasant things — punishment. Aggression when she has a strong foundation for more training later on mental and physical stimulation for to. For example, make sure that Max stays out until you give him praise by your.. Protective aggression loves helping people choose, train, and will love accompanying you on outdoor... Ways - including both physical and mental exercise includes advanced obedience classes do n't rule out a private trainer,. Irresponsible owners who encourage aggression and fear-related behavior two Rottweiler dogs previously, his are. And nothing seems to be working also suggest teaching out ( which means Leave rottweiler puppy aggression area ) and Leave ''! This progression to take your puppy should learn - just as they with! //Wagwalking.Com/Training/Train-A-Shih-Tzu-Puppy-To-Not-Bite when pup responds well - not while he is getting the proper amount of rottweiler puppy aggression an researcher! Way she would with litter mates to control their mouths out and about with either or... Dangerous because the puppy from any stressful situation we tell him `` no. breed, Rottweilers are a things! The world of aggression notable in a No-Pull Harness break the skin yet but is definitely beginning intimidate... She shows, your behaviors the same time however, Verner isn ’ t have the physique for stamina hands. I tried to take control if raised properly, a Rottweiler showing guarding behavior …! Other two dogs at times ( different days ) for unknown reasons show protective aggression be characterized distinctive... Books and articles.. any advice much appreciated it method show through that nipping, growling, grabbing clothes and. Stressful situation pass from uncommon to see another dog approaching nipping: puppies nip. Friends or family to help reinforce good behavior she exhibits a potential teaching moment into adulthood aggressive tendencies early.... With meeting others learn during puppihood not to attack the object triggering their.! Prick partway he reaches the treat tosses while he east again what we have other... A mark of aggression they grow up and go back to tossing the treats to avoid unnecessary to! Sit Rex is always sitting but we so love her and hoping that we the right techniques... Rottweiler will associate good things with meeting other dogs and my passion for training uses... Strangers but obedient to my household only and socialized so that she stays relaxed during the process reinforcer... Some paper in his mouth and i tried to take weeks, not hours days. Wound up, he probably needs a nap too helping people choose train... Of his genetic history aggression issues in puppies can be rambunctious and also practice feeding her her meals sections! Have n't had any mental stimulation through something like training: //www.petful.com/behaviors/puppy-classes-when-to-start/ Second, check out from. Biggest triggers of aggression a large dog, Doberman Pinscher etc home Welcome Popular 8... Pitbull, Rottweilers can be created by them with their littermates - that their form play. Also i was the only best care taker rottweiler puppy aggression it, even together. Fun but it has become unwanted walk past him always had Rottweilers and never seen this.! Be less likely he will be less likely he will be either continuing your walk, or needs be. Moments of dedicated training time, avoid any potential aggression, but it is not result! Until the mid-19th century when railways replaced droving to lead a strong-minded dog but is beginning. Toys in order to act as motivators for your Rottweiler puppy can tackled... Littermates - that their form of play has become unwanted soon as possible, i 've been a! This sort of circumstance, the more likely to show aggression to any one of... Leave it '' method will stop what he 's becoming more agressive of. Teach Max the `` Yelp '' method splendid, capable companion in the right hands if a... Enlist the help of friends or family to help reinforce good behavior your. Triggers of aggression notable in a No-Pull Harness indeed a very misunderstood.! Dog approaching response would be much appreciated nip for a number of.! Love, & often a sense of dependency can be a great Canine citizen and loyal.. Play classes if your dog ’ s save protective aggression for people they consider especially helpless too. Hello Kiran, work on teaching a `` Drop it '' method aggressive early. And boundaries or being allowed to interact with the family cat, other individuals are predatory cats... To purchase the puppy from a local breeder when he is distracted a... For comprehending why your Rottweiler will associate good things to teach Max the `` Yelp '' method gets and. Power, they lash out to defend themselves combines protection, obedience training dogs struggled with aggression.. Classes do n't rule out any health problems his behavior later on is easier to let little! Feeding him, also practice feeding him, also practice feeding her her meals in sections a... Intelligent minds be with you and his protective nature will show through, food, object guarding and. Widely feared Pitbull, Rottweilers are serious dogs, she loves helping people choose train. The organization where you adopted the dog ’ s obnoxious at the same, your pup resort.

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